In the realm of education, continuous improvement is paramount, and educators
are consistently seeking effective strategies to enhance student achievement and
learning outcomes. One such strategy that has gained prominence in recent years is the
use of rubrics in assessing student performance. Rubrics provide clear and specific
criteria for evaluating student work, offering both educators and students a transparent
framework for understanding expectations and assessing progress. While the use of rubrics is widespread across various subjects, its application in Mathematics holds particular significance due to the unique challenges posed by the subject’s abstract nature and the need for precise evaluation of mathematical reasoning and
problem-solving skills.

In a study by Rhodes (2012), faculty on over one hundred campuses tested the
rubrics with student work from a variety of classes and disciplines. The rubrics were
found to be useful across the curriculum and co-curriculum for assessing student

Additionally, Gallego-Arrufat and Dandis (2014) shared the study of integrating a rubric as an assessment learning tool in a secondary mathematics classroom in Spain. The results indicated that rubrics have the potential to enhance students’ learning and teacher’s work. Using the rubric made the students an active part in the learning process since they knew what is expected from them and worked hard to achieve the required level.

Brinkmann (2014) investigated the impact of analytic rubrics on student mastery
performance with basic skills associated with rational numbers in an eighth grade mathematics class. Findings from this study indicated that when teachers provide students with corrective feedback following a formative assessment and an opportunity to retest, students improve their mastery of concepts, especially with the use of rubrics. Russell (2014) cited that Ontario teachers found that the use of rubrics support the sharing of learning targets (goals), differentiating instruction when using formative assessment to elementary school students.

Mphahlele (2022) explored student’s perception of using a rubric and peer
assessment as alternative assessments in an online learning environment. The study
aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of peer assessments with rubrics in online learning environments to help students adopt a deep approach to learning in online learning environments.

Livingstone and Fink (2012) shared that the rubric gives teachers more confidence in their own grading, and it gives students more confidence in the reliability of how they are being assessed, which in turn gives them confidence that they can improve their assessments. And when it comes to improvement, such a rubric allows students to see the core problem or problems on a paper. Comparing paper to paper, they can even begin to self-identify trends in need of strong correction. Youn and Chen (2021) talked about a scoring rubric, together with a test or a series of tasks, is indispensable in classroom assessment both for summative purposes and formative purposes. Teachers can adopt performance-based assessments in classrooms as a way to measure students’ learning progress in relation to complex learning outcomes. In order to maximize the unique strengths of performance assessment, it is important to remind teachers of the importance of designing and using well-designed rubrics.

Benson, et. al. (2022) cited that rubrics that include instructional contexts and
scaffolds enable teachers to both formatively assess and systematically differentiate
instruction for all students. This allows teachers to meaningfully participate in science
instruction and support students in mastering critical scientific practices and core

Tashtoush et. al (2024) cited that students taking up Calculus favored the use of
rubrics when being assessed compared to not having rubrics. They expressed
satisfaction with the use of analytical and holistic performance scoring rubrics in
evaluating their performance in their Calculus course. Overall, the literature and studies underscore the importance of making rubrics for student achievement. Rubric-based assessment has been shown to enhance student learning outcomes, promote engagement and motivation, support differentiated instruction, facilitate meaningful feedback and self-assessment, and foster effective communication between educators and students. As educators continue to strive for excellence in mathematics education, the use of rubrics emerges as a valuable tool for promoting student success and fostering mathematical proficiency.


This study compared Math Course 3 performance of students of Terra Nova High
School SY 2023-2024 who were exposed in rubric-based assessment and traditional
assessment method without rubrics. It aimed to:

  1. To examine the impact of implementing rubrics on student understanding of mathematical concepts. It aims to assess how the use of rubrics enhances students’ comprehension and application of mathematical concepts by providing clear criteria for success and guiding their learning process.
  2. To generate practical recommendations for educators on effectively implementing rubrics in mathematics instruction. It aims to synthesize research findings, best practices, and lessons learned from the study into actionable recommendations and guidelines for educators seeking to integrate rubrics into their teaching practice effectively.

By addressing these objectives, the study will contribute to a deeper
understanding of the importance of making rubrics for student achievement in math and
provide valuable insights and recommendations for enhancing mathematics instruction
and promoting student success.


This study sought to provide answers to implementing rubrics in mathematics
instruction that will lead to a significant improvement in students’ understanding and
application of mathematical concepts compared to traditional assessment methods.


The methodology for this experimental research involved comparing the
effectiveness of rubric-based assessment (experimental group) with traditional
assessment method without rubric (control group) in improving student achievement in
Math Course 3. By employing an experimental design, this study aimed to provide
empirical evidence on the impact of making rubrics on student learning outcomes and to
inform best practices in mathematics education.

Participants for this study included students in 2 Math Course 1 classes. A total
of 60 students evenly distributed between the experimental and control groups.
Prior to the intervention, all participants completed a pre-intervention assessment
to establish baseline measures of student achievement. Pre-tes included a quiz
designed to measure students’ mathematical proficiency.

Then, the experimental group received a rubric-based assessment method,
where the teacher developed and used rubrics to evaluate student work and provide
feedback while the control group received a traditional assessment method without rubrics. The teacher in the control group used conventional grading practices, such as assigning numerical scores or letter grades, without the use of rubrics. Moreover, the intervention was implemented over the fall semester in Math Course 3 to ensure consistency in instructional practices and assessment procedures across both groups.

Following the intervention, all participants completed a post-intervention assessment to measure changes in student achievement in Math Course 3. Post-test mirrored the pre-test which included a quiz. This data was analyzed using statistical methods, such as t-test for single and small sample which measured the level of performance in the pretest and posttest of the students from the 2 groups, t-test for correlated samples which measured the significant mean gain of the performance of students from the 2 groups, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-way to compare differences in student achievement between the experimental and control groups.

Results and Discussion

The discussion of results from the experimental research on the importance of
making rubrics for student achievement in math provided insights into the effectiveness
of rubric-based assessment compared to traditional assessment method without rubric.
This section examined the outcomes of the intervention and explored the implications
for mathematics education.

The primary focus of the discussion was on comparing student achievement
between the experimental group (rubric-based assessment) and the control group
(traditional assessment). Statistical analysis of pre- and post-intervention assessment
scores revealed significant differences in student achievement between the two groups.
Specifically, students in the experimental group demonstrated greater improvement in
mathematical proficiency compared to those in the control group. This finding suggested
that the implementation of rubrics positively impacts student learning outcomes in


In conclusion, the results of the experimental research highlight the importance of
making rubrics for student achievement in math. Rubric-based assessment proves to be
an effective strategy for enhancing student learning outcomes, engagement, and
motivation in mathematics. By providing clear criteria for success, facilitating meaningful
feedback, and promoting student ownership of learning, rubrics play a valuable role in
promoting student success in mathematics education.


Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations
were suggested:

  1. that rubrics be included in Math Course 3 teachers’ repertoire of teaching methods;
  2. that further research use a similar design to be conducted with a larger sample to further investigate the relationship between rubric-based assessment and Mathematics achievement and use assessment instruments which allow rubrics to be used during all or part of the assessment activity;
  3. that professional learning communities be organized by the district like workshops and trainings, to encourage the effective use of rubrics in teaching Math Course 3 as it will help students of different learning styles;
  4. that longer time for experimentation be used to gain more conclusive results of its effects.REFERENCES


Benson, S. K., Therrien, W. J., Lovette, G. E., Doabler, C., & Longhi, M. (2022). Rubrics:
Useful Beyond Assessments. Science and Children, 59(5), 52-56.
Brinkmann, N. C. (2014). The impact of analytic rubric feedback in eigth grade
mathematics (Order No. 3662764). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest
Central; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global; ProQuest One Education.
Livingston, M., & Fink, L. S., R.W.T. (2012). The Infamy of Grading Rubrics. English
Journal, 102(2), 108-113.
Maria Jesus Gallego-Arrufat, & Dandis, M. (2014). Rubrics in a Secondary Mathematics
Class. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 9(1), 73-82.
Mphahlele, L. (2022). Students’ Perception of the Use of a Rubric and Peer Reviews in
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Rhodes, T. L. (2012). Emerging Evidence on Using Rubrics. Peer Review, 13/14(4), 4-5.
Russell, S. (2014, Winter). How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment
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Tashtoush, M., Sheerawi, N., & Alrashid, N. (2024). Scoring Rubrics Method in
Performance Assessment and its effect on Mathematical Achievement. Athens
Journal of Education 2024, 11: 1-22
European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 10(1), 25-44.